Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Millions of Americans and foreigners see G.I.Joe as a mindless war toy, the symbol of American military adventurism, but that’s not how it used to be. To the men and women who __1__in World War II and the people they liberated, the G.I. was the__2__man grown into hero ,the pool farm kid torn away from his home ,the guy who__3__all the burdens of battle ,who slept in cold foxholes, who went without the __4__ of food and shelter ,who stuck it out and drove back the Nazi reign of murder .this was not a volunteer soldier ,not someone well paid , __5__an average guy , up__6__the best trained, best equipped, fiercest, most brutal enemies seen in centuries.
His name is not much. G. I. is just a military abbreviation __7__Government Issue ,and it was on all of the article __8__ to soldiers .And Joe? A common name for a guy who never__9__it to the top .Joe Blow ,Joe Maraca …a working class name. The United States has __10__ had a president or vice president or secretary of state Joe.
GI .Joe had a __11__career fighting German, Japanese, and Korean troops. He appears as a character, or a __12__ of American personalities, in the 1945 movie The Story of G.I. Joe, based on the last days of war correspondent Ernie Pyle. Some of the soldiers Pyle__13__portrayed themselves in the film. Pyle was famous for covering the__14__side of the war, writing about the dirt-snow -and-mud soldiers, not how many miles were __15__ or what towns were captured or liberated, His reports __16__ the “willie” cartoons of famed Stars and Stripes artist Bill Maul-den. Both men__17__the dirt and exhaustion of war, the __18__ of civilization that the soldiers shared with each other and the civilians: coffee, tobacco, whiskey, shelter, sleep. __19__ Egypt, France, and a dozen more countries, G.I. Joe was any American soldier, __20__ the most important person in their lives.
1.[A] performed [B]served [C]rebelled [D]betrayed
2.[A] actual [B]common [C]special [D]normal
3.[A]bore [B]eased [C]removed [D]loaded
4.[A]necessities [B]facilities [C]commodities [D]properties
5.[A]and [B]nor [C]but [D]hence
6.[A]for [B]into [C] form [D]against
7.[A]meaning [B]implying [C]symbolizing [D]claiming
8.[A]handed out [B]turn over [C]brought back [D]passed down
9.[A]pushed [B]got [C]made [D]managed
10.[A]ever [B]never [C]either [D]neither
11.[A]disguised [B]disturbed [C]disputed [D]distinguished
12.[A]company [B]collection [C]community [D]colony
13.[A]employed [B]appointed [C]interviewed [D]questioned
14.[A]ethical [B]military [ [C]political [D]human
15.[A]ruined [B]commuted [C]patrolled [D]gained
16.[A]paralleled [B]counteracted [C]duplicated [D]contradicted
17.[A]neglected [B]avoided [C]emphasized [D]admired
18.[A]stages [B]illusions [C]fragments [D]advances
19.[A]With [B]To [C]Among [D]Beyond
20.[A]on the contrary [B] by this means [C]from the outset [D]at that point
Section II Reading Comprehension
Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
Homework has never been terribly popular with students and even many parents, but in recent years it has been particularly scorned. School districts across the country, most recently Los Angeles Unified, are revising their thinking on his educational ritual. Unfortunately, L.A. Unified has produced an inflexible policy which mandates that with the exception of some advanced courses, homework may no longer count for more than 10% of a student’s academic grade.
This rule is meant to address the difficulty that students from impoverished or chaotic homes might have in completing their homework. But the policy is unclear and contradictory. Certainly, no homework should be assigned that students cannot do without expensive equipment. But if the district is essentially giving a pass to students who do not do their homework because of complicated family lives, it is going riskily close to the implication that standards need to be lowered for poor children.
District administrators say that homework will still be a part of schooling; teachers are allowed to assign as much of it as they want. But with homework counting for no more than 10% of their grades, students can easily skip half their homework and see very little difference on their report cards. Some students might do well on state tests without completing their homework, but what about the students who performed well on the tests and did their homework? It is quite possible that the homework helped. Yet rather than empowering teachers to find what works best for their students, the policy imposes a flat, across-the-board rule.
At the same time, the policy addresses none of the truly thorny questions about homework. If the district finds homework to be unimportant to its students’ academic achievement, it should move to reduce or eliminate the assignments, not make them count for almost nothing. Conversely, if homework matters,it should account for a significant portion of the grade.Meanwhile,this policy does nothing to ensure that the homework students receive is meaningful or appropriate to their age and subject ,or that teachers are not assigning more than they are willing to review and correct.
The homework rules should be put on hold while the school board, which is responsible for setting educational policy, looks into the matter and conducts public hearings. It is not too late for L.A. Unified to do homework right.
21. It is implied in paragraph 1 that nowadays homework_____.
[A] is receiving more criticism [B]is no longer an educational ritual
[C]is not required for advanced courses [D]is gaining more preferences
22. L.A.Unified has made the rule about homework mainly because poor students_____.
[A]tend to have moderate expectations for their education
[B]have asked for a different educational standard
[C]may have problems finishing their homework
[D]have voiced their complaints about homework
23. According to Paragraph 3, one problem with the policy is that it may____.
[A]discourage students from doing homework [B]result in students' indifference to their report cards
[C]undermine the authority of state tests [D]restrict teachers' power in education
24. As mentioned in Paragraph 4, a key question unanswered about homework is whether_____.
[A] it should be eliminated [B]it counts much in schooling
[C]it places extra burdens on teachers [D]it is important for grades
25. A suitable title for this text could be______.
[A]Wrong Interpretation of an Educational Policy [B]A Welcomed Policy for Poor Students
[C]Thorny Questions about Homework [D]A Faulty Approach to Homework
Pretty in pink: adult women do not remember being so obsessed with the color, yet it is pervasive in our young girls’ lives. It is not that pink is intrinsically bad, but it is such a tiny slice of the rainbow and, though it may celebrate girlhood in one way, it also repeatedly and firmly fuses girls’ identity to appearance. Then it presents that connection, even among two-year-olds, between girls as not only innocent but as evidence of innocence. Looking around, I despaired at the singular lack of imagination about girls’ lives and interests.
Girls’ attraction to pink may seem unavoidable, somehow encoded in their DNA, but according to Jo Paoletti, an associate professor of American Studies, it is not. Children were not color-coded at all until the early 20th century: In the era before domestic washing machines all babies wore white as a practical matter, since the only way of getting clothes clean was to boil them. What’s more, both boys and girls wore what were thought of as gender-neutral dresses. When nursery colors were introduced, pink was actually considered the more masculine color, a pastel version of red, which was associated with strength. Blue, with its intimations of the Virgin Mary, constancy and faithfulness, symbolized femininity. It was not until the mid-1980s, when amplifying age and sex differences became a dominant children’s marketing strategy, that pink fully came into its own, when it began to seem inherently attractive to girls, part of what defined them as female, at least for the first few critical years.
I had not realized how profoundly marketing trends dictated our perception of what is natural to kids, including our core beliefs about their psychological development. Take the toddler. I assumed that phase was something experts developed after years of research into children’s behavior: wrong. Turns out, according to Daniel Cook, a historian of childhood consumerism, it was popularized as a marketing trick by clothing manufacturers in the 1930s.
Trade publications counseled department stores that, in order to increase sales, they should create a “third stepping stone” between infant wear and older kids’ clothes. It was only after “toddler” became a common shoppers’ term that it evolved into a broadly accepted developmental stage. Splitting kids, or adults, into ever-tinier categories has proved a sure-fire way to boost profits. And one of the easiest ways to segment a market is to magnify gender differences - or invent them where they did not previously exist.
26. By saying "it is...the rainbow"(Line 3, Para.1),the author means pink______.
[A]should not be the sole representation of girlhood
[B]should not be associated with girls' innocence
[C]cannot explain girls' lack of imagination
[D]cannot influence girls' lives and interests
27.According to Paragraph 2, which of the following is true of colors？
[A]Colors are encoded in girls' DNA.
[B]Blue used to be regarded as the color for girls.
[C]Pink used to be a neutral color in symbolizing genders.
[D]White is preferred by babies.
28. The author suggests that our perception of children's psychological development was much influenced by_____.
[A]the marketing of products for children [B]the observation of children's nature
[C]researches into children's behavior [D]studies of childhood consumption
29. We may learn from Paragraph 4 that department stores were advised to_____.
[A]focus on infant wear and older kids' clothes [B]attach equal importance to different genders
[C]classify consumers into smaller groups [D]create some common shoppers' terms
30. It can be concluded that girls' attraction to pink seems to be____.
[A] clearly explained by their inborn tendency [B] fully understood by clothing manufacturers
[C] mainly imposed by profit-driven businessmen [D]well interpreted by psychological experts
In 2010, a federal judge shook America's biotech industry to its core. Companies had won patents for isolated
DNA for decades---by 2005 some 20% of human genes were parented. But in March 2010 a judge ruled that genes
were unpatentable. Executives were violently agitated. The Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO), a trade group, assured members that this was just a “preliminary step” in a longer battle.
On July 29th they were relieved, at least temporarily. A federal appeals court overturned the prior decision, ruling that Myriad Genetics could indeed hold patents to two genes that help forecast a woman's risk of breast cancer. The chief executive of Myriad, a company in Utah, said the ruling was a blessing to firms and patients alike.
But as companies continue their attempts at personalized medicine, the courts will remain rather busy. The Myriad case itself is probably not over Critics make three main arguments against gene patents: a gene is a product of nature, so it may not be patented; gene patents suppress innovation rather than reward it; and patents' monopolies restrict access to genetic tests such as Myriad's. A growing number seem to agree. Last year a federal task-force urged reform for patents related to genetic tests. In October the Department of Justice filed a brief in the Myriad case, arguing that an isolated DNA molecule “is no less a product of nature... than are cotton fibers that have been separated from cotton seeds.”
Despite the appeals court's decision, big questions remain unanswered. For example, it is unclear whether the sequencing of a whole genome violates the patents of individual genes within it. The case may yet reach the Supreme Court.
AS the industry advances, however, other suits may have an even greater impact. Companies are unlikely to file many more patents for human DNA molecules---most are already patented or in the public domain .Firms are now studying how genes interact, looking for correlations that might be used to determine the causes of disease or predict a drug’s efficacy,.Companies are eager to win patents for “connecting the dots”, explains Hans Sauer, a lawyer for the BIO.
Their success may be determined by a suit related to this issue, brought by the Mayo Clinic, which the Supreme Court will hear in its next term. The BIO recently held a convention which included sessions to coach lawyers on the shifting landscape for patents. Each meeting was packed.
31. It can be learned from paragraph I that the biotech companies would like____.
[A]their executives to be active [B]judges to rule out gene patenting
[C]genes to be patentable [D]the BIO to issue a warning
32. Those who are against gene patents believe that____.
[A]genetic tests are not reliable [B]only man-made products are patentable
[C]patents on genes depend much on innovation [D]courts should restrict access to gene tic tests
33. According to Hans Sauer, companies are eager to win patents for____.
[A]establishing disease correlations [B]discovering gene interactions
[C]drawing pictures of genes [D]identifying human DNA
34. By saying “each meeting was packed” (line4, para6) the author means that ____.
[A]the Supreme Court was authoritative [B]the BIO was a powerful organization
[C]gene patenting was a great concern [D]lawyers were keen to attend conventions
35. Generally speaking, the author’s attitude toward gene patenting is____.
[A]critical [B]supportive [C]scornful [D]objective
The great recession may be over, but this era of high joblessness is probably beginning. Before it ends, it will likely change the life course and character of a generation of young adults. And ultimately, it is likely to reshape our politics, our culture, and the character of our society for years.
No one tries harder than the jobless to find silver linings in this national economic disaster. Many said that unemployment, while extremely painful, had improved them in some ways; they had become less materialistic and more financially prudent; they were more aware of the struggles of others. In limited respects, perhaps the recession will leave society better off. At the very least, it has awoken us from our national fever dream of easy riches and bigger houses, and put a necessary end to an era of reckless personal spending.
But for the most part, these benefits seem thin, uncertain, and far off. In The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth, the economic historian Benjamin Friedman argues that both inside and outside the U.S. ,lengthy periods of economic stagnation or decline have almost always left society more mean-spirited and less inclusive, and have usually stopped or reversed the advance of rights and freedoms. Anti-immigrant sentiment typically increases, as does conflict between races and classes.
Income inequality usually falls during a recession, but it has not shrunk in this one,. Indeed, this period of economic weakness may reinforce class divides, and decrease opportunities to cross them--- especially for young people. The research of Till Von Wachter, the economist in Columbia University, suggests that not all people graduating into a recession see their life chances dimmed: those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times; it is the masses beneath them that are left behind.
In the internet age, it is particularly easy to see the resentment that has always been hidden within American society. More difficult, in the moment, is discerning precisely how these lean times are affecting society’s character. In many respects, the U.S. was more socially tolerant entering this recession than at any time in its history, and a variety of national polls on social conflict since then have shown mixed results. We will have to wait and see exactly how these hard times will reshape our social fabric. But they certainly will reshape it, and all the more so the longer they extend.
36.By saying “to find silver linings”（Line 1,Para.2）the author suggest that the jobless try to___.
[A]seek subsidies from the government [B]explore reasons for the unemployment
[C]make profits from the troubled economy [D]look on the bright side of the recession
37. According to Paragraph 2,the recession has made people_____.
[A]realize the national dream [B]struggle against each other
[C]challenge their lifestyle [D]reconsider their lifestyle
38. Benjamin Friedman believed that economic recessions may_____.
[A]impose a heavier burden on immigrants [B]bring out more evils of human nature
[C]Promote the advance of rights and freedoms [D]ease conflicts between races and classes
39. The research of Till Von Wachther suggests that in recession graduates from elite universities tend to _____.
[A]lag behind the others due to decreased opportunities
[B]catch up quickly with experienced employees
[C]see their life chances as dimmed as the others’
[D]recover more quickly than the others
40. The author thinks that the influence of hard times on society is____.
[A]certain [B]positive [C]trivial [D]destructive
Directions: Read the following text and answer the questions by finding information from the left column that corresponds to each of the marked details given in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEERT 1. (10 points)
“Universal history, the history of what man has accomplished in this world, is at bottom the History of the Great Men who have worked here,” wrote the Victorian sage Thomas Carlyle. Well, not any more it is not.
Suddenly, Britain looks to have fallen out with its favorite historical form. This could be no more than a passing literary craze, but it also points to a broader truth about how we now approach the past: less concerned with learning from forefathers and more interested in feeling their pain. Today, we want empathy, not inspiration.
From the earliest days of the Renaissance, the writing of history meant recounting the exemplary lives of great men. In 1337, Petrarch began work on his rambling writing De Viris Illustribus - On Famous Men, highlighting the virtus (or virtue) of classical heroes. Petrarch celebrated their greatness in conquering fortune and rising to the top. This was the biographical tradition which Niccolo Machiavelli turned on its head. In The Prince, the championed cunning, ruthlessness, and boldness, rather than virtue, mercy and justice, as the skills of successful leaders.
Over time, the attributes of greatness shifted. The Romantics commemorated the leading painters and authors of their day, stressing the uniqueness of the artist's personal experience rather than public glory. By contrast, the Victorian author Samuel Smiles wrote Self-Help as a catalogue of the worthy lives of engineers, industrialists and explores. "The valuable examples which they furnish of the power of self-help, of patient purpose, resolute working and steadfast integrity, issuing in the formulation of truly noble and manly character, exhibit," wrote Smiles. "What it is in the power of each to accomplish for himself" His biographies of James Walt, Richard Arkwright and Josiah Wedgwood were held up as beacons to guide the working man through his difficult life.
This was all a bit bourgeois for Thomas Carlyle, who focused his biographies on the truly heroic lives of Martin Luther, Oliver Cromwell and Napoleon Bonaparte. These epochal figures represented lives hard to imitate, but to be acknowledged as possessing higher authority than mere mortals.
Not everyone was convinced by such bombast.”The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles,”wrote Marx and Engel in The Communist Manifesto. For them, history did nothing; it possessed no immense wealth nor waged battles: “It is man, real, living man who does all that.” And history should be the story of the masses and their record of struggle. As such, it needed to appreciate the economic realities, the social contexts and power relations in which each epoch stood. For:“Men make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly found, given and transmitted from the past.”
This was the tradition which revolutionized our appreciation of the past. In place of Thomas Carlyle, Britain nurtured Christopher Hill, EP Thompson and Eric Hobsbawm. History from below stood alongside biographies of great men. Whole new realms of understanding - from gender to race to cultural studies - were opened up as scholars unpicked the multiplicity of lost societies. And it transformed public history too: downstairs became just as fascinating as upstairs.
[A] emphasized the virtue of classical heroes
[B] highlighted the public glory of the leading artists
[C] focused on epochal figures whose lives were hard to imitate
43. Samuel Smiles
[D] opened up new realms of understanding the great men in history
44. Thomas Carlyle
[E] held that history should be the story of the masses and their record of struggle
45. Marx and Engels
[F] dismissed virtue as unnecessary for success leaders
[G]depicted the worthy lives of engineer industrialists and explorers
Section III Translation
46. Directions: Translate the following text from English into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER
When people in developing countries worry about migration, they are usually concerned at the prospect of their
best and brightest departure to Silicon Valley or to hospitals and universities in the developed world .These are the kind of workers that countries like Britain ,Canada and Australia try to attract by using immigration rules that privilege college graduates .
Lots of studies have found that well-educated people from developing countries are particularly likely to emigrate .A big survey of Indian households in 2004 found that nearly 40% of emigrants had more than a high-school education, compared with around 3.3% of all Indians over the age of 25.This "brain drain "has long bothered policymakers in poor countries ,They fear that it hurts their economies ,depriving them of much-needed skilled workers who could have taught at their universities ,worked in their hospitals and come up with clever new products for their factories to make .
Section IV Writing
Suppose you have found something wrong with the electronic dictionary that you bought from an online store the other day, Write an email to the customer service center to
1) make a complaint and
2) demand a prompt solution
You should write about 100words on ANSERE SHEET 2
Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter, Use "Zhang Wei "instead.
48. write an essay based on the following table .In your writing you should
1) describe the table ,and
2) give your comments
You should write at least 150 words (15points)
【解析】這道題主要考查介詞的搭配。根據up______(the best trained, best equipped, fiercest, most brutal).enemies可以知道是起來反抗敵人，所以選D選項against。
【解析】GI.在軍事上是Government Issue 的縮略語，所以，GL.這個符號就是象征著這個全稱Government Issue。選C。
【解析】該句意思為，GI.這個符號出現在給士兵分發的所有物品上，hand out “分發，發放”符合題意。Turn over “移交”，bring back“帶回”，pass down“傳承，一代一代傳下來”在句意上都說不通。
【解析】本題考察詞匯辨析?？账诘恼Z境為:GI .Joe有_ _ 的軍旅生涯，曾和德國，美國以及韓國的軍隊作戰。由此語境確定選D，其他幾項均不符合題意。
【解析】本題考察詞匯辨析?？账谡Z境為：Pyle _ _ 的士兵也本色出演了該片。結合上句對Ernie Pyle的介紹，可知為一戰地記者（war correspondent），確定答案C
【解析】本題考察詞匯辨析。ruined意為“破壞”；commuted意為“通勤，經常往來于..”； patrolled意為“巡邏”；gained意為“獲得，達到”。本句應表達: Pyle并不關注士兵行軍多少里,或是占領或解放了多少地方。gain在這里是指士兵行軍達到多少公里。
【解析】本題考察詞匯辨析?？账谡Z境為：他的報導與Bill Maulden的是_____的。緊接的一句話揭示了本題的答案，兩者都（Both men）。由此可確定兩人的報導應是類似的。因而，選A。“counteracted ”表示“抵制,中和,對抗 ”，duplicated表示“ 復制,重復”，“ contradicted”表示“反駁，與 ... 矛盾”。
【解析】本題考察介詞的用法?？账谡Z境為：_ _ 印度，法國，以及其他國家，G.I. Joe可以是任何美國士兵。結合文章表達，應是對于這些人而言。因而，確定答案B。
【解析】本題考察邏輯搭配?？账谡Z境為：G.I. Joe是他們生命中最重要的人。原題四個選項分別表示on the contrary“ 正相反”； [B] by this means“用這種方式”；[C]from the outset“從一開始”；[D]at that point表示“就那點（方面）來說”。D為最佳答案。
【解析】文章首段首句指出“家庭作業一直不受學生，還有許多家長的歡迎，特別是到了最近幾年，家庭作業還遭到了人們的不屑。”后面的內容則是簡單提出美國各學區對于家庭作業的作為，引出L.A.Unified針對家庭作業所指定的政策。該題題干問的是“根據文章首段，目前家庭作業…”，關鍵詞是家庭作業，因此答案從首句就能判斷出來，題干的nowadays對應原文中的in recent years，所選答案則是對“it has been particularly scorned.”的同義改寫，故答案選A。
【解析】題干關鍵詞“a key question unanswered ”對應第四段的首句“the policy addresses none of the truly thorny questions about homework.”而這個問題的具體內容則是從“if”開始說明，因此這道題要解出正確答案，需要對后面的內容進行分析，“如果學區認為家庭作業對應學生的學業不重要，學區應致力于減少或者刪除家庭作業，使家庭作業不起任何作用；相反，如果家庭作業重要，它應該在學業中占重要的一部分。”從這兩句的內容中，我們可以簡單歸納出，L.A.Unified所指定的這項政策到目前為止還未對家庭作業對于學生學業是否有重要作用給出確定答案，故答案選B。
【解析】題干的意思是“通過說‘粉色是彩虹中多么微小的一小部分’，作者的意思是 。根據文章第一段第三行,but作為連詞表示后面的內容是對前面內容的否定，but之前的意思是說“粉色本身并不是不好”，而后買面的“such a tiny slice of ”是指“是彩虹中多么微小的一部分”，由此可以得出，粉色并不代表女孩童年生活的全部。所以，選A.
【解析】題干是要根據文章第二段，判斷哪個是對顏色理解正確的選項。根據文章第二段第一句話，前半部分是說“女孩對于粉色的關注看起來好像是不可避免的，不知怎么的，就跟存在與她們的基因里一樣”，but之后是對前者的否定，所以很明顯，A項是錯誤的。根據第二段的第7行，pink was actually considered the more masculine color,可以得出，C選項錯誤。對于D選項，根據第二段第4、5行，可以得知，兒童穿白色是屬于以前的情況，并非現在的事實，而D選項的時態是指一般現在時，時態不符合。根據文章8行，9行，可以得知，blue symbolized femininity,可以得知，藍色曾經被認為是女孩子的顏色，符合文章題意。所以，選B.
【解析】文章首段首句提到“In 2010, a federal judge shook America's biotech industry to its core.”,即2010年，聯邦的一項決定震驚了美國的生物科技產業。后面接著提到，這項決定是“genes were unpatentable”,意思是與基因相關的項目不能夠獲得專利權，而“executives were violently agitated”,由agitated(憤怒的)可以推斷出正確答案為C，即生物科技產業希望與基因相關的項目能夠獲得專利權。
【解析】文章最后一段提到了BIO最近要召開的一個會議。“Each meeting was packed”,這句話中的“packed”的原義為“打包，包裝”，而在此句中的意思是：擠滿，塞滿。即會議擠滿了人，從而反映了大家對基因專利的關注，故真確答案為C。答案A與題干無關；答案B屬于主觀臆斷；答案D是干擾項，訓練律師只是這次大會的一部分內容，以偏概全。
【解析】第二句冒號后面：他們不再那么追求物質，經濟上更節儉；同時意識到其他人在努力奮斗，即D選項中reconsider their lifestyle,重新審視他們的生活方式。A項有干擾性，但文中說“將我們從夢想中喚醒”，所以不對。B、C沒有提到。
【解析】定位在第三段第二句開始。接下來一句通過關鍵詞mean-spirited and less inclusive ，B選項正是該句的改寫，故為正確答案；A屬于過度推理；C、D意思明顯弄反了
【解析】定位在第四段第三句冒號后面：高等學府的畢業生能夠很快調整自身，達到未遭遇危機時的狀態。D選項與之含義相符。C明顯不對，“not all people graduating into a recession see their life chances dimmed”表明，不是所有的畢業生都認為前途渺茫。B項無中生有。A與原文相反。
【解析】由最后一句可知，“they certainly will reshape it”表示困難時期的一定會對社會產生影響的，所以certain與之相符。由最后一段無法看出是positive還是destructive,所以B、D均不正確。A項是“無足輕重的”，明顯不對。
【解析】本題答案鎖定在第三自然段，第二行講到“Petrarch began...highlighting the virtue of classical heroes” 即彼特拉克在他的書中強調古典英雄的美德。答案A與此是完全對應的。
【解析】此題定位于第三自然段第五行，重點理解詞組“turn on its head” ,意思為“to change sth completely”,所以說尼可洛，馬基雅維利的觀點與彼特拉克的觀點是相反的，后面有進一步說明了， virtue并不是成功領導者的技能。
【解析】此題定位于第四自然段的第四行，“Self-help as a catalogue of the worthy lives of engineers, industrialists and explorers”, 塞繆爾·斯邁爾斯在他的書《成事在己》里面講到了工程師，實業家，探險家的有意義的生活，G與此是對應的
【解析】此題定位于第五自然段第三行，“these epochal figures represented lives hard to imitate”,托馬斯，卡萊爾描述了一些穿越苦難的劃時代的人物。C對應了此答案。
【解析】此題定位于第六自然段第五行，“history should be the story of the masses and their record of struggle”,答案E與此句是完全對應的。
Section III Translation
1）文章第一句的主句需要我們去認真思考下。“they are usually concerned at the prospect of their best and brightest departure to Silicon Valley or to hospitals and universities in the developed world”
這句話中concern at 的賓語是prospect?？吹?/span>“of”我們要立即想到“A of B”翻譯為“B的A”在這里，A指的就是“prospect”，關鍵就是找出B指代的是什么。而這一點恰恰是本句理解的難點B指的是 “their best and brightest”翻譯為 “他們中最優秀、最聰明的（群體）”。
3）“brain drain” 這個詞組是在報刊雜志中經常出現的，意思是“人才流失”。這個詞語通過上下文邏輯應該能大概猜出它的意思，但是在考研考場上，尤其是在完成了閱讀和作文后很多同學可能已經耗費了大量的體力和腦力，對于這個單詞的猜測可能會很費力，甚至會放棄。這個說明我們再平時的學習過程中應該注意積累這樣的熱點詞匯。
4）“They fear that it hurts their economies, depriving them of much-needed skilled workers who”
Section IV Writing
Dear Sir or Madam,
I am writing this letter to make a complaint about the quality of the electronic dictionary I bought from your store the other day.
The reason for my dissatisfaction is that I found the electronic dictionary can’t reach my satisfaction. In the first place, the outlook is quite different from what it is placed online. In addition, the number of the vocabulary contained in it is too small. I’d like to buy an electronic dictionary with a large vocabulary.
I appreciate it very much if you could change another satisfying one for me. And I would like to have this matter settled by next Friday. Thank you for your consideration and I will be looking forward to your favorable reply.
Here demonstrates a table with regard to the degree of satisfaction on work of staff in a company ranging from three different age groups, under 40, 40 to 50, and above 50 respectively. Specifically speaking, people in their forties are least satisfied with their present work situation at the rate of 64.0%. In comparison, people over 50 are most satisfied with their current situation at 40.0%. A noticeable figure is that half the staff under the age of 40 have no idea about their conditions.
There prove to be a number of reasons accounting for it. First and foremost, it has something to do with the structure of staff’s age, especially with their working and life experience in which they play a pivotal role. What is more, this social issue is likely to be intertwined with the organization of the company where they serve.
In line with my personal thinking, there are two major factors that should be taken into account seriously. On one hand, the general people concerned should enhance their awareness in this respect. What is more, the relevant
company should increase the benefits for their employees. Only if these measures are adopted effectively can people work in peace and content and companies benefit most.